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Thus, as described above, in the motion compensation inter-frame coding, the predictive coding operation is effected by using a sign of the preceding body having the highest degree of similarity to be a sign within the blocks within the current body as a prediction sign. However, when the enter television sign accommodates noise, even on the standstill portion, the degree of similarity to a shift vector exhibiting that the blocks are standstill is not at all times the utmost with the end result that the standstill portion might inadvertently be judged as a transferring portion. Consequently, a dirty window which is standstill within the inter-frame coding is seen shifting in the motion compensation inter-frame coding, thus significantly degrading the picture high quality. An instance of the method of detecting the quantity of displacement, that is, a method of determining an optimum prediction operate is disclosed in U.S. No. 4,307,420 entitled "Motion-compensated interframe coding system", issued Dec. 22, 1981. According to this patent, prediction errors regarding various prediction functions comparable to vectors indicative of assorted movements are compared with one another in block items and a vector similar to a prediction perform that offers the minimum prediction error is deemed as a motion vector representative of an optimum prediction perform. With regard to the impact of movement compensation, it is acknowledged that by applying the movement correction for a moving picture, the quantity of information can be decreased to about one-half of the inter-frame coding system, thus attaining appreciable compression of data.

Preferably, the movement vector information is coded right into a variable word size code which has the minimum code length for the inter-frame prediction. Specifically, the code size of the variable word length code is minimum for the inter-frame prediction and increases as the norm of the movement vector increases. In the previous, a comparatively excessive transmission speed was assumed so that it has been thought of that the proportion of the motion vector data is negligibly small. Consequently, it has been considered that an optimum prediction which minimizes the quantity of the whole thing of data transmitted may be realized by detecting a movement vector which minimizes the quantity of knowledge representing a prediction error. However, as shall be seen from the foregoing description, because the transmission pace decreases, so that motion vector info occupies a proportion that can't be uncared for.

When it is the minimal, the prediction perform comparator 8--8 selects and holds the prediction function equipped by way of line 108-5b at this time as a brief optimum prediction function, however when the result of judgment is "no" the comparator 8--8 holds the beforehand decided short-term optimum prediction perform as it's. The temporary optimum perform is at all times supplied to a prediction selection circuit 8-9 which delivers the detected optimum prediction perform, that is, a movement vector onto the road 108 in accordance with a timing sign similar to the divisions of the blocks and supplied from the sequence 8-5 over the line 108-5b. The movement vector thus decided is the output from the optimum prediction detector 8. An assumption is made right here that the image parts included in a block are disposed in a two-dimensional 2-by-2 array as illustrated in FIG. 6 and the range of motion correction for a block has a price of ±1 image factor per frame in the horizontal direction and ±1 line per frame within the vertical direction as in the case of the motion compensation vary described in conjunction with FIGS. Then, to be able to appropriate the motion within this range for this block, 16 predictions from x1 to x16 are essential for 9 prediction vectors from which is principally used for a stationary picture within the earlier body, , , .

A controller 301 is offered for management of coding in accordance with occupancy of the buffer reminiscence 300. Included within the coding management are choice of quantizing traits, sub-sample or thin-out of picture elements in horizontal path, and sub-line or thin-out of picture parts in vertical course. Through the coding control, coding effectivity can all the time be optimized in any management mode. The code compressor 7 has an information rate matching function which permits compressed info to be output at a relentless knowledge rate, and it includes a prediction error sign encoder 7-1 related between line 103a and a multiplexor 7-3, and a motion vector encoder 7-2 connected between line 108b and multiplexor 7-3 as proven in FIG. An adaptive coding system according to claim four whereby said code size of mentioned variable word size code is minimum for said inter-frame prediction and increases because the norm of stated prediction perform will increase. An adaptive coding system according to claim 2 wherein stated first evaluation means evaluates mentioned prediction function by encoding it right into a variable word size code which has the minimum code size for the inter-frame prediction.

On the opposite hand, after scan conversion has been carried out, the video sign is organized within the order of a11, a12, a21, a22, a13, a14, a23, a24 and so on, and computation for a two-dimensional block takes only four image component periods similar to for a11, a12, a21 or for a13, a14, a23 and a24, and customarily M image factor periods. When scan conversion is carried out prematurely, computation for each two-dimensional block becomes the same as that for a one-dimensional block including, for example, a11, a12, a13, and a14, thus greatly simplifying the computation control.